Jacksonville       Duval County                 904-346-1266
St Augustine      St Johns County             904-824-7144
Orange Park       Clay County                   904-264-6444
Jacksonville Beaches    Duval County      904-246-3969
Fernandina          Nassau County               904-277-3040
Macclenny          Baker County                 904-259-5091
Palm Coast         Flagler County                386-439-5290
Daytona              Volusia County               386-253-4911
Serving all of Florida  and Georgia    at     904-346-1266

EMAIL LARRY@1STPROP.COM (feel free to email your bidding packages here)

Backflow testing  repairs installation and certification to your utility.

Irrigation Backflow testing

Water line Backflow testing

Sewer line Backflow testing

Splash Guards

We can program our computer for annual backflow testing.  We will call you instead of you having to call us each year.

New installation.

New construction.

Annual maintainance of the backflow, such as cleaning the inside and greasing the springs.  We only use a USDA water soluble grease, which is acceptable in a water system.


FREE ESTIMATES, LICENSED AND INSURED.We accept all major credit cards.  Visa, Mastercard, Discover and American Express.

New construction, alterations, repairs, commercial, industrial, residential, medical, and hospitals…..all work is very welcome and appreciated.

click below to watch a video about why your backflow preventors are going to keep you and your family healthy

Backflow news report

We service the following areas of northeast Florida: Jacksonville, Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, Ponte Vedra Beach, Fernandina, Amelia Island, Callahan, Yulee, Hillard, Macclenny, St George, St Marys, Kingsland, Orange Park, Middleburg, Green Cove Springs, Penny Farms, St Augustine, Hastings, Palatka, Keystone Heights, Starke, Lake City, Waldo, Baldwin, St Augustine Beach, Crescent Beach,  Palm Coast, Daytona, Holly Hill, Titusville, Daytona Shores, Ormond Beach, Bunnell, Deland, Orange City, Port Orange, Orlando, New Smyrna Beach, Sanford, Palm Valley, Fruitcove, Mandarin, Lawtey, St. Augustine Beach, Switzerland, Vilano Beach,  Marineland, Flagler Beach, Beverly Beach, Sanderson, and Glen St. Mary.



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A . S . A . P .  Backflow Testing Repairs and Installation


We are an authorized repair vendor for












If you would like to order parts only for a backflow device

please call our Backflow parts division at   904-993-3433

We sell parts for

Double check Backflow Preventor Assembly     DCBPA

Reduced Pressure Backflow Preventor Assembly      RPBPA

Pressure Vacume Breaker      PVB

Air Gap


Atmospheric Vacume Breaker       AVB













Repair Parts

· Valves · Enclosures (Standard or Custom)


· Test Fittings

· O-Ring Lubricant
Thermal Expansion Tanks

· Test Equipment

Repair Tools

· Wye Strainers

Freeze Protection Valves

Did your backflow bust this winter, then call me and ask how we can stop this from happening next winter.  I have a solution for you.

Call me at 904-993-3433


What is a Backflow?

Backflow is the reversal of flow of non potable water or other undesirable substances through a cross connection into the consumer’s or public potable water.

Why Protect Against Backflow?

Backflow can contaminate the water system, making it unsafe to drink.

Each water supplier is required to ensure that their product is safe to use, to the best of their ability.

Consumers assume that the water being supplied to them is safe and it is the responsibility of water suppliers to make sure that it is.

What Is A Backflow Preventer?

As its name implies, a backflow preventer is a device used to ensure that unpotable water does not contaminate potable water.

There are many types of backflow preventers such as the double check valve assembly, pressure vacuum breaker assembly, and the reduced pressure principle assembly.

The residential double check valve is another example of a mechanical backflow preventer.

What is a Backflow Assembly?

A backflow assembly is an approved, testable assembly which uses valves in different configurations to prevent polluted or contaminated water from reversing direction and flowing backward.  Common uses are on fire sprinkler systems, irrigation systems, boiler make-up and domestic water services.

When Do I Need To Have My Backflow Assemblies Tested?

Each backflow assembly must be tested and certified upon installation and shall be tested and certified annually thereafter.

Serving the entire Jacksonville area including the following communities:

Othhere are some more backflow links to look atvvver Backflow Links
  • American Water Works Association
  • Building Officials and Code Administrators
  • Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research
  • Illinois Fire Prevention Association
  • National Fire Sprinkler Association
  • Northern Illinois Fire Sprinkler Association
  • Virginia Cross-Connection Control Association
  • Western Washington Cross Connection Prevention Professionals Group

    – Pacific Northwest Section of the American Water Works Association, Summary of Backflow Incidents, Fourth Edition, 1995
    – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cross-Connection Control Manual, 1989
    – Watts Industries, Inc.; Watts Regulator News/Stop Backflow


    In June 1983, “yellow gushy stuff” poured from some faucets in the Town of Woodsboro, Maryland. Town personnel notified the County Health Department and the State Water Supply Division. The State dispatched personnel to take water samples for analysis and placed a ban on drinking the Town’s water. Firefighters warned residents not to use the water for drinking, cooking, bathing, or any other purpose except flushing toilets. The Town began flushing its water system. An investigation revealed that the powerful agricultural herbicide Paraquat had backflowed into the Town’s water system.

    Someone left open a gate valve between an agricultural herbicide holding tank and the Town’s water system and, thus, created a cross-connection. Coincidentally, water pressure in the Town temporarily decreased due to failure of a pump in the Town’s water system. The herbicide Paraquat was backsiphoned into the Town’s water system. Upon restoration of pressure in the Town’s water system, Paraquat flowed throughout much of the Town’s water system.

    Fortunately, this incident did not cause any serious illness or death. The incident did, however, create an expensive burden on the Town. Tanker trucks were used temporarily to provide potable water, and the Town flushed and sampled its water system extensively.

    – Pacific Northwest Section of the American Water Works Association, Summary of Backflow Incidents, Fourth Edition, 1995


    On December 31, 1987, the Spokane, Washington, Water Department received complaints about air in the water and dispatched crews to the scene to flush the water mains. Upon investigation, the City Water Department discovered that a compressor at a soft drink bottling plant had injected air into the public water system.

    Personnel at the bottling plant said that a potable water line into a shop area froze often during winter and that they used compressed air to clear the line. Workers normally closed isolating valves before attempting to clear the line, but they forgot to close the valves this time. Consequently, a large amount of air was injected into the public water system surrounding the bottling plant.

    The Water Department required the installation of a reduced-pressure principle backflow-prevention assembly at the bottling plant to prevent recurrence of the problem.

    – Pacific Northwest Section of the American Water Works Association, Summary of Backflow Incidents, Fourth Edition, 1995


    On March 31, 1988, superheated water from a boiler in a tire retreading plant in Eugene, Oregon, backflowed into the plant’s potable water system. The hot water, which contained an unidentified boiler treatment compound, broke (i.e., melted) the two-inch-diameter PVC water service pipe to the plant and damaged the City’s water main.

    An unapproved backflow device consisting of two single check valves was installed in the potable water feed line to the boiler at the tire retreading plant. Both check valves failed. There was no backflow preventer at the service connection to the plant.

    The water utility ordered the immediate installation of a reduced-pressure principle backflow-prevention assembly at the water service connection to the tire retreading plant.

    LOCATION OF BACKFLOW INCIDENT: Wenatchee, Washington
    – American Water Works Association, Opflow, May 1977
    – Pacific Northwest Section of the American Water Works Association, Summary of Backflow Incidents, Fourth Edition, 1995


    In November 1976, approximately 300 gallons of liquid containing 1.2 pounds of the pesticide Endrin was backsiphoned from a pesticide applicator’s truck into a small public water system serving 21 residents near Wenatchee, Washington. Endrin is a very toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon applied to orchards in late fall to control mice.

    This incident occurred when, by coincidence, three applicators were filling their trucks from three separate hydrants on a water main connecting the public water system’s well to a storage tank. The storage tank was about « mile away from, and about 200 feet above, the well. The withdrawal of water to fill two trucks at the lower end of the water main (near the well) created a negative pressure in the higher end of the water main (near the storage tank), and the contents of the truck at the higher end of the water main were backsiphoned into the public water system.

    The public water system did not employ a full-time operator. Consequently, the contamination problem went undetected and unreported until two days after the incident. During that time, several families drank, and bathed in, the contaminated water. Fortunately, the chemical was greatly diluted in its passage through the storage tank, and therefore, no illnesses were reported.

    When the State was notified of the contamination problem, it ordered the public water system to shut down, advised consumers of the situation, and initiated a sampling program. Initial samples showed 130 parts per billion of Endrin in the water. The system drained and scrubbed its storage tank and flushed

    – Pacific Northwest Section of the American Water Works Association, Summary of Backflow Incidents, Fourth Edition, 1995
    – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cross-Connection Control Manual, 1989
    – Watts Industries, Inc.; Watts Regulator News/Stop Backflow


    On January 29, 1981, a nationally known fast food restaurant in the City of Norfolk, Virginia, complained to the City Water Department that all their drinks were being rejected by customers because the drinks tasted salty. The City Water Department inspected all potable water lines at the restaurant for cross-connections but found none. Then the City Water Department checked with adjacent customers and received another salty water complaint from a shipyard. The same water main lateral served both the restaurant and the shipyard. City Water Department personnel promptly conducted an inspection of the shipyard and discovered that sea water had backflowed into the City’s public water system.

    The shipyard had a high-pressure fire protection system supplied by sea water. The sea water was delivered by both electric and diesel pumps, which were primed by using a potable water line connected directly to the high-pressure fire protection system. Workers left this priming line open. Thus, while the electric pumps were trying to maintain high pressure in the fire protection system, they were pumping sea water back through the priming line and into the City’s public water system. A backflow preventer had been previously installed at the water service connection to the shipyard. However, the backflow preventer froze and burst earlier in the winter and was removed and replaced with a spool piece to maintain potable water service to the shipyard.

    To correct the problem, the potable water priming line to the fire protection system pumps was removed. Also, a new backflow preventer was installed at the water service connection to the shipyard. Heat tape was wrapped around the new backflow preventer to prevent freezing of the backflow preventer.

    LOCATION OF BACKFLOW INCIDENT: Winnepeg, Manitoba, Canada
    – American Water Works Association, Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Control, AWWA Manual M14, Second Edition, 1990


    On May 25, 1979, personnel at a local refinery in Winnepeg, Manitoba, called the City because the drinking water at the refinery had an oily, gasoline-type odor. The City took a water sample, and a test of this sample showed a hydrocarbon in the water. It was determined that a backflow had occurred in the refinery’s laboratory.

    LOCATION OF BACKFLOW INCIDENT: Hillsborough County, Florida
    – Hillsborough County Water Department


    On September 18, 1996, a meter reader with the Hillsborough County Water Department noticed that the water meter at a home in northwest Hillsborough County was registering backwards. A cross-connection had been created between the potable and reclaimed water systems at this premises, and reclaimed water was backflowing into the public potable water system.

    Apparently, the County’s reclaimed water service connection to this residential premises had recently been hooked up to an existing irrigation system at the premises. The irrigation system, which was previously supplied with water from the home’s potable water system, was not disconnected from the home’s potable water system. Furthermore, a backflow preventer was not installed at the County’s potable water service connection to the premises. The County Water Department estimated that about 50,000 gallons of reclaimed water backflowed into the public potable water system.

    After discovering the cross-connection, County Water Department personnel immediately shut off reclaimed water service to the residential premises where the cross-connection was found and notified the County Health Department of the cross-connection. County Water Department personnel then began flushing potable water mains in the area and advised the owner of the premises where the cross-connection was found to flush all water outlets at the premises. Based upon analysis of water samples collected by its Environmental Laboratory staff, the County Water Department reckoned that the cross-connection’s impact was limited to that portion of the public potable water system within 1,000 feet of the cross-connection.

    On September 19, the owner of the residential premises where the cross-connection was found hired a plumber to eliminate the cross-connection.

    – American Water Works Association, Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Control, AWWA Manual M14, Second Edition, 1990


    In December 1983, effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in San Antonio, Texas, backflowed into the potable water system at the plant because of maintenance activities.

    Eight employees reportedly suffered gastrointestinal problems. Fortunately, a reduced-pressure principle backflow-prevention assembly was in place at the water service connection to the plant. This assembly contained contamination within the plant site.

    Florida Administrative
    Codes 62-550 and 62-555Defines cross-connections, 62-550.200:(22):

    ”CROSS-CONNECTION” means any physical arrangement whereby a public water supply is connected, directly or indirectly, with any other water supply system, sewer, drain, conduit, pool, storage reservoir, plumbing fixture, or other device which contains or may contain contaminated water, sewage or other waste or liquid of unknown or unsafe quality which may be capable of imparting contamination to the public water supply as the result of backflow. By-pass arrangements, jumper connections, removable sections, swivel or changeable devices and other temporary or permanent devices through which or because of which backflow could occur are considered to be cross-connections.

    Prohibits cross-connections, 62-555.360(1):

    Cross-connection, as defined in Rule 62-550.200, F.A.C., is prohibited. However, a person who owns or manages a public water system may interconnect to another public water system if that system is operated and maintained in accordance with this Chapter.

    Requires a cross-connection control program, 62-555.360(2):

    Community Water systems, and all public water systems which have service areas that are also served by reclaimed water systems regulated under Part III, of Chapter 62-610, F.A.C., shall establish and implement a routine cross-connection control program to detect and control cross-connections and prevent backflow of contaminants into the water system, This program shall include a written plan that is developed using recommended practices of the American Water Works Association set forth in Recommended Practices for Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Control, AWWA Manual M14, as incorporated into Rule 62-555.330 F.A.C.

    What shall be done if a cross-connection exists, 62-555.360(3):

    Upon discovery of a prohibited cross-connection, public water systems shall either eliminate the cross-connection by installation of an appropriate backflow prevention device acceptable to the Department or shall discontinue service until the contaminant source is eliminated.

    Requires that backflow preventers be installed under the supervision of the water supplier, also states where backflow preventers should be installed, 62-555.360(4):

    Only the following are considered to be backflow prevention devices. They shall be installed in agreement with and under the supervision of the supplier of water or his designated representative (plumbing inspector, etc.) at the consumer’s meter, at the property line of the consumer when a meter is not used, or at a location designated by the supplier of water or the Department. The devices are:

    (a) Air gap separation – A physical separation between the free-flowing discharge end of a potable water supply pipeline and an open or non-pressure receiving vessel. An “approved airgap separation” shall be at least double the diameter of the supply pipe measured vertically above the top of the rim of the vessel. In no case shall it be less than 1 inch.

    (b) Reduced pressure backflow preventer – A device containing within its structure a minimum of two independently acting approved check valves, together with an automatically operating pressure differential relief valve located between the two check valves. The first check valve reduces the supply pressure a predetermined amount so that during normal flow and at cessation of normal flow the pressure between the checks shall be less than the supply pressure. In case of leakage of either check valve, the differential relief valve, by discharging to the atmosphere, shall operate to maintain the pressure between the checks less than the supply pressure. The unit shall include tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the device, and each device shall be fitted with properly located test cocks.

    (c) Atmospheric vacuum breaker – A backflow prevention device which is operated by atmospheric pressure in combination with the force of gravity. The unit is designed to work on a vertical plane only. The one moving part consists of a poppet valve which must be carefully sized to slide in a guided chamber and effectively shut off the reverse flow water when a negative pressure exists.

    (d) Pressure vacuum breaker – A pressure vacuum breaker is similar to an atmospheric vacuum breaker except that the checking unit “poppet valve” is activated by a spring. This type of vacuum breaker does not require a negative pressure to react and can be used on a pressure side of a valve.

    (e) Double check valve assembly – An assembly composed of two single, independently acting, check valves, including tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the assembly and suitable connections for testing the water tightness of each check valve. A check valve is a valve that is drip-tight in the normal direction of flow when the inlet pressure is one psi and the outlet pressure is zero. The check valve shall permit no leakage in a direction reverse to the normal flow. The closure element (e.g. clapper) shall be internally weighted or otherwise internally loaded to promote rapid and positive closure.

    (f) Residential Dual Check – A compact unit manufactured with two independent spring actuated check valves. The residential dual check is acceptable only as added backflow prevention in areas served by reuse systems defined in Chapter 62-610, Part III, F.A.C., when the cross connection control program identifies activities specific to (5)(a) and (5)(b) of this section.

    Specific Authority 403.086(8), 403.861(9) FS. Law Implemented 403.086(8), 403.855(3) FS. History–New 11-19-87, Formerly 17-22.660, Amended 1-18-89, 1-3-91, 1-1-93, Formerly 17-555.360, Amended 8-28-03.

    (5) Cross connection control programs specific to reuse systems defined in Chapter 62-610, Part III, F.A.C., shall consider the following:

    (a) Enhanced public education efforts towards prevention of cross connections.

    (b) Enhanced inspection programs for portions of the distribution systems in areas of reuse for detection and elimination of cross connections.

    (c) Dual check valves shall be considered acceptable for reducing risks from back-flow only at residential properties served by reclaimed water unless:

    1. Local codes, ordinances or regulations require greater levels of back-flow prevention.

    2. Other hazards exist on the property that require a greater level of back-flow prevention.

    Specific Authority 403.086(8), 403.861(9) FS. Law Implemented 403.086(8), 403.855(3) FS. History–New 11-19-87, Formerly 17-22.660, Amended 1-18-89, 1-3-91, 1-1-93, Formerly 17-555.360, Amended 8-28-03.

    (7) Cross-connection control.

    (a) No cross-connections to potable water systems shall be allowed. The permittee shall submit documentation of Department acceptance for a cross-connection control and inspection program, pursuant to Rule 62-555.360, F.A.C., for all public water supply systems located within the area to be served by reclaimed water.

    (b) Reclaimed water shall not enter a dwelling unit or a building containing a dwelling unit except as allowed by Rules 62-610.476, and 62-610.479, F.A.C.

    (c) Maximum obtainable separation of reclaimed water lines and domestic water lines shall be practiced. A minimum horizontal separation of three feet (outside to outside) shall be maintained between reclaimed water lines and either potable water mains or sewage collection lines. The Department shall approve smaller horizontal separation distances if one of the following conditions is met:

    1. The top of the reclaimed water line is installed at least 18 inches below the bottom of the potable water line.

    2. The reclaimed water line is encased in concrete.

    3. The applicant provides an affirmative demonstration in the engineering report that another alternative will result in an equivalent level of protection.

    (d) The provisions of Chapter 62-604, F.A.C., are applicable to in-ground crossings. No vertical or horizontal separation distances are required for above-ground crossings.

    (e) Separation distance requirements in Rules 62-610.469(7)(c) and (d), F.A.C., apply to transmission and distribution systems located in rights-of-ways. Similar separation distances are recommended, but are not required on properties where reclaimed water is being used.

    (f) All reclaimed water valves and outlets shall be appropriately tagged or labeled (bearing the words in English and Spanish: “Do not drink” together with the equivalent standard international symbol) to warn the public and employees that the water is not intended for drinking. All piping, pipelines, valves, and outlets shall be color coded, or otherwise marked, to differentiate reclaimed water from domestic or other water. Effective January 1, 1996, underground piping which is not manufactured of metal or concrete, shall be color coded for reclaimed water distribution systems using Pantone Purple 522C using light stable colorants. Underground metal and concrete pipe shall be color coded or marked using purple as a predominant color. If tape is used to mark the pipe, the tape shall be permanently affixed to the top and each side of the pipe (three locations parallel to the axis of the pipe). For pipes less than 24 inches in diameter, a single tape may be used along the top of the pipe. Visible, above-ground portions of the reclaimed water distribution system shall be clearly color coded or marked. New systems and expansions of existing systems for which permit applications are submitted to the Department on or after January 1, 1996, shall comply with this color coding standard. It is recommended, but shall not be required, that distribution and application facilities located on private properties, including residential properties, be color coded using Pantone Purple 522C.

    (g) The return of reclaimed water to the reclaimed water distribution system after the reclaimed water has been delivered to a user is prohibited.

    (h) The permittee is responsible for conducting inspections within the reclaimed water service area to verify proper connections, monitor proper use of reclaimed water, and minimize the potential for cross-connections. Inspections are required when customers first connect to the reclaimed water distribution system. Periodic inspections are required as specified in the cross-connection control and inspection program.

    Specific Authority 403.061, 403.087, FS. Law Implemented 403.021, 403.061, 403.062, 403.085, 403.086, 403.087, 403.088, FS. History – New 4-4-89; Amended 4-2-90, Formerly 17-610.469; Amended 1-9-96, 8-8-99.

    Defines maximum contaminant level (mcl), 62-550.200(48):

    ”MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LEVEL” (MCL) means the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. Prohibits the introduction of contaminants that do not have a maximum contaminant standard, 62-550.330

    62-550.330 Other Contaminants Without a Standard.

    No contaminant which creates or has the potential to create an imminent and substantial danger to the public shall be introduced into a public water system.

    Specific Authority 403.861(9) FS. Law Implemented 403.852(12), (13), 403.853(1) FS. History–New 11-19-87, Formerly 17-22.230, 17-550.330.

    62-555.330 Engineering References for Public Water Systems. In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the requirements and standards contained in the following technical publications are hereby incorporated by reference and shall be applied in determining whether permits to construct or alter a public water system components, excluding wells (but including well pumping equipment and appurtenances), shall be issued or denied. Each of these publications is available from the publisher or source listed for the publication. The specific requirements contained in this chapter supersede the requirements and standards contained in these publications. Where there are conflicts between these publications, suppliers of water and construction permit applicants shall comply with any one of the publications. Where there are multiple options or alternatives in these publications, suppliers of water and construction permit applicants shall comply with any one of the options or alternatives. The Department shall allow exceptions to the requirements and standards in these publications if suppliers of water or construction permit applicants provide justification for each exception and provide alternative design and construction features that achieve the same purpose and that afford a similar level of strength, durability, reliability, and public health protection.

    (1) Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Community Water Supplies, Fifth Edition

    (2) Water Treatment Plant Design, Third Edition

    (3) Recommended Standards for Water Works, 1997 Edition

    (4) Standards of the American Water Works Association (AWWA)

    (5) Water Fluoridation: A Manual for Engineers and Technicians, September 1986

    (6) Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Control, AWWA Manual  M14,  Second Edition, 1990, American Water Works Association (AWWA). Published by AWWA, 6666 W. Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80235.

    (7) Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water Reuse, December 2000

    (8) Water Distribution Systems Handbook, 1999

    Requires that records on backflow prevention be maintained for a period of 10 years, 62-550.720(3):

    Copies of any written reports, summaries or communications relating to cross-connection control programs or sanitary surveys of the system conducted by the system itself, by a private consultant, or by any local, State or Federal agency, shall be kept for a period of not less than 10 years after completion of the sanitary survey.


    62-550.720 Recordkeeping.

    Suppliers of water shall retain on their premises, or at a convenient location near their premises, the following records:

    (1) Records of bacteriological analyses made under this chapter shall be kept for not less than 5 years. Records of physical, chemical, or radiological analyses made under any portion of this chapter other than Rule 62-550.800, F.A.C., shall be kept for not less than 10 years. Actual laboratory reports may be kept, or data may be transferred to tabular summaries, provided that the information required in Rule 62-550.730, F.A.C., is included.

    (2) Records of action taken by the system to correct a violation of primary drinking water regulations shall be kept for a period not less than 3 years after the last action taken with respect to the particular violation involved.

    (3) Copies of any written reports, summaries, or communications relating to cross-connection control program or sanitary surveys of the system conducted by the system itself, by a private consultant, or by any local, State or Federal agency, shall be kept for a period not less than 10 years after completion of the sanitary survey.

    (4) Records concerning a variance or exemption granted to the system shall be kept for a period ending not less than 5 years following the expiration of the variance and exemption.

    (5) Monthly operation reports shall be kept for a period of not less than 10 years.

    (6) Any system subject to the requirements of Rule 62-550.800, F.A.C., shall retain, for no fewer than 12 years, original records of all sampling data and analyses, reports, surveys, letters, evaluations, schedules, Department determinations, and any other information required by Rule 62-550.800, F.A.C.

    Specific Authority 403.861(9) FS. Law Implemented 403.861(16) FS. History–New 11-19-87, Formerly 17-22.820, Amended 1-18-89, 1-1-93, 7-4-93, Formerly 17-550.720, Amended 11-27-01.

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    Neighborhoods of Jacksonville, Florida

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    As the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States, Jacksonville is divided both formally and informally into a few large sections. Though most residents divide the city into Northside, Southside, Westside, and—increasingly over the past decade, Arlington—Jacksonville’s official website divides the city into six major sections:[1]

    Sections of Jacksonville

    • Greater Arlington, more commonly known to Jacksonville citizens simply as Arlington, is situated east and south of the St. Johns River and north of Beach Blvd.
    • North Jacksonville is officially designated by the city website as everything north of the St. Johns & Trout Rivers and east of US 1. Much of this area is known by Jacksonville residents as the Northside, though much of what is called “Northside” does not fall within these boundaries, and much of what falls within these boundaries has not been traditionally known as “Northside”.
    • Northwest Jacksonville is located north of Interstate 10, south of the Trout River and surrounds the downtown section. The parts of this area between US Highway 1 and the Trout and St. John’s River is usually considered part of either the “Northside” or, alternately, Downtown. Much of this section is actually rural land, not easily classified as part of any section.
    • Southeast Jacksonville, almost universally known as Southside, refers to everything east of the St. Johns River and south of Beach Blvd.
    • Southwest Jacksonville makes up most of what is known in Jacksonville as the Westside, though parts of Northwest Jacksonville also are considered part of the “Westside”. It consists of everything west of the St. Johns River and south of Interstate 10.
    • The Urban Core, most of which is commonly known as Downtown, includes the south & north banks of the narrowest part of the St. Johns River east from the Fuller Warren Bridge and extending roughly 4 miles (6.4 km) north and east.

    With the rapid growth in the eastern part of Duval County, the Intracoastal/Beaches/Ponte Vedra area is viewed by many as a major section as well, but is not generally included in a Jacksonville list since they lie outside of the Jacksonville city limits. There is also a distinct part of the city known as “Eastside” which those unfamiliar with Jacksonville’s overall geography sometimes mistakenly regard as one of the major divisions of town, rather than the localized neighborhood which it is.

    Today, what distinguishes a “section” of Jacksonville from a “neighborhood” is primarily a matter of size and divisibility. However, definitions are imprecise, and sometimes not universally agreed upon.[2]

    Each of these sections not only encompasses a large area, but also, each is divided into many neighborhoods. Each of these neighborhoods, in turn, has its own identity.

    Each of these sections is divided into many neighborhoods. Some of these neighborhoods, such as Mandarin and LaVilla, had existed previously as independent towns or villages, prior to consolidation, and have their own histories.


    North Jacksonville


    The Sandalwood neighborhood began developing in the spring of 1960, midway between downtown Jacksonville and the beaches, or about 6 miles (9.7 km) from each, was advertised in 1960-61 as “On the Southside – halfway between business and pleasure!” The builder-developer, Pearce-Uible, was located at 3850 Beach Blvd.

    The original neighborhood was bordered by the then two-lane Atlantic Boulevard on the north, a mile of palmetto and scrub on the south before reaching Beachwood neighborhood and Beach Boulevard, the western part of the neighborhood was bordered by the less than two-lane dirt road named St. John’s Bluff, and the eastern border of the neighborhood was defined by a storm drainage ditch called the Sandalwood Canal. The original streets are named after mostly South Pacific islands and most of the streets are, from north to south, in alphabetical order. The original street names are Aloha Drive; Batavia Drive; Caledonia Drive; Delago Drive; Eniwetok Drive; Fiji Court; Hawaii Drive East; Hawaii Drive South; Indies Drive North; Indies Drive East; Indies Drive South; Java Drive; Kuralei Drive; Mindanao Drive (The main drag); Sandalwood Boulevard (Original main entrance road); Bahia Drive; Dulawan Drive; and Kusaie Drive.

    The were eight original home styles named as follows: Aloha; Bahama; Bikini; Caledonia; Del ray; Java; Polynesian; and Waikiki. Free airplane rides over Sandalwood were offered during the grand opening. The entrance and sales office located on Sandalwood Boulevard boasted a winding, palm lined street, and adjacent play area for the children. Homes were priced from $11,400 to $16,000, with monthly payments as low as $67. The original Sandalwood consisted of approximately 500 homes. The first families purchased homes in May and June 1960. Many of the first families were U.S. Navy families who were stationed at the Mayport base and others were employed by CSX railroad.

    In the late 1970s, additional construction began at the southern border by the Sofranko Homes company, nearly doubling the size of the neighborhood. Most of the original early 1960s families have moved away over the years, but a handful of the original families are still left from the early 1960s.

    Southeast Jacksonville

    Neighborhoods include Arrowhead, Avenues, Bayard, Baymeadows, Baymeadows Center, Beach Haven, Beauclerc, Bowden, Brackridge, Brierwood, Craven, Deercreek, Deerwood, Deerwood Center, Del Rio, Englewood, Goodbys Creek, Greenfield Manor, Greenland, Isle of Palms, Julington Creek, Kilarney Shores, Lakewood, Loretto, Mandarin, Mandarin Station, Miramar, Montclair, Pickwick Park, Pine Forrest, Royal Lakes, San Jose, San Jose Forrest, San Marco, Sans Pareil, Sans Souci, Secret Cove, South Riverside, Southpoint, Southwood, Spring Park, Sunbeam, Tiger Hole and Windy Hill.


    Bayard has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see Bayard.


    Baymeadows is a relatively affluent neighborhood centered around Baymeadows Road. It is situated south of Arlington (specifically, south of J. Turner Butler Boulevard) and east of Mandarin. A center for white-collar employment, it is home to many corporate office parks, upscale apartment complexes and residential developments, two private golf courses, several shopping centers and a large shopping mall.  Deerwood and Hampton Glen and East Hampton and Reedy Branch Deercreek


    Lakewood, which lies in the area where San Jose Blvd. and University Blvd intersect, is a residential area with houses built in the 1950s. It has several churches, two shopping centers, and a plethora of streets named after major private colleges, such as Clemson, Cornell, Fordham, and Emory.


    Loretto is a distinct part of the greater Mandarin area, and sits between San Jose Boulevard to the west and Philips Highway to the east. It is bordered to the north by Interstate 295 and to the south by the county line. Loretto was formed by the Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine. In the days of Reconstruction, Loretto sprouted up next to the nuns’ convent, dormitory and school. It is on what became Old St. Augustine Road, the highway between Jacksonville and St. Augustine. According to Wayne Wood’s Jacksonville’s Architectural Heritage, the nuns were sent there to educate both the residents and newly freed slaves. The Catholic Church still owns the property on all four corners of the intersection of St. Augustine Road and Loretto/Greenland Roads. The Loretto area public schools always have been highly regarded; on the FCAT, they’re all rated A, B or C. The average price for homes that become available in Loretto is just under $200K. Many homes are built on some of the largest new construction lots in the area and there are a lot of dead-end streets and cul-de-sacs. Over the length of San Jose Boulevard, residents can find just about every merchant, service or restaurant available in the city. Loretto has a solid, hometown feel, with established neighborhoods, parks and nature areas nearby, making it the proverbial middle America.


    Mandarin has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see Mandarin.

    [Help us with translations!]

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    Mandarin, Jacksonville, Florida

    Mandarin is a neighborhood located in the southern most portion of Jacksonville, in Duval County, Florida, United States. It is located on the eastern banks of the St. Johns River, across from Orange Park. Mandarin was named after the Mandarin orange in 1830 by Calvin Reed, a prominent resident of the area .

    Once called “a tropical paradise” by author Harriett Beecher Stowe, the quaint area of Mandarin is marked by its history, ancient oak trees draped with Spanish moss, beautiful parks, marinas and more water views than any other area in Jacksonville. In the 1800s, Mandarin was a small farming village that shipped oranges, grapefruit, lemons and other fruits and vegetables to Jacksonville and points north on the steamships that traveled the St. Johns River. In 1864, the Union steamship, the Maple Leaf, hit a Confederate mine and sank just off Mandarin Point.

    While Mandarin now is just a small section of the City of Jacksonville, its natural beauty, parks and historic buildings draw visitors from around the world. Just a short drive south of Jacksonville’s city center, the community is bordered by Beauclerc to the north, Julington Creek to the south and St. John’s River to the west.


    Harriet Beecher Stowe

    Main article: Palmetto Leaves

    In 1867 the famous author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe bought a cottage here. For the next seventeen winters, she welcomed tourists debarking from the steamers making their way down the St. Johns River and charged them 75 cents each to meet her and admire her surroundings.

    Stowe, although best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin about the cruelty of slavery, also wrote about Florida.

    She had promised her Boston publisher another novel, but was so taken with northeast Florida that she produced instead a series of sketches of the land and the people which she submitted in 1872 under the title Palmetto Leaves. Her second book did not outsell her first novel, but did have the effect of drawing rich and fashionable tourists to visit her.

    In Palmetto Leaves Stowe describes life in Florida in the latter half of the 19th century; “a tumble-down, wild, panicky kind of life—this general happy-go-luckiness which Florida inculcates.” Her idyllic sketches of picnicking, sailing, and river touring expeditions and simple stories of events and people in this tropical “winter summer” land became the first unsolicited promotional writing to interest northern tourists in Florida.[1]

    A small chapel is dedicated to Harriet Beecher Stowe in Mandarin.

    Famous Residents

    The late Allen Collins from the rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd resided some of his last years in Mandarin before he passed. Mandarin was also the location where Allen was involved in a car accident during 1986 that left him paralyzed from the waist down and his girlfriend dead.

    20th Century

    In 1968, the city of Jacksonville and most of Duval County formed a consolidated municipal unit. As part of this process, Mandarin ceased to exist as a political entity, and became part of the City of Jacksonville.

    In 1990, with the rapid growth of Mandarin, a new public high school was opened in the area. Several prominent citizens in Jacksonville urged that the new school be named Harriet Beecher Stowe High School, but the proposal did not receive widespread acceptance, and instead the school was simply named, Mandarin High School.


    Mandarin is located at 30°09′37″N 81°39′34″WCoordinates: 30°09′37″N 81°39′34″W (30.1603, -81.6594).[2] / 30.1603°N 81.6594°W / 30.1603; -81.6594 / 30.1603°N 81.6594°W / 30.1603; -81.6594


    1. ^ “Palmetto Leaves”. University Press of Florida. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
    2. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990″. United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. Retrieved 2008-01-31.

    External links

    San Marco

    San Marco is a relatively small and generally upscale neighborhood located south of Downtown and north of Mandarin. Due to large differences in property value, income distribution, and reported crime statistics in a relatively small area, San Marco is diverse. In one block, residences range from low cost, multi-family dwellings to sprawling riverside mansions. It is an area of historical and cultural significance in Jacksonville, and its inhabitants and proprietors identify strongly with their community.

    Known as a trendy area, the most identifying feature of San Marco is “the Square,” an artsy shopping, dining, and entertainment district; its galleries, restaurants, and boutiques are overwhelmingly independently owned, operated, and supported which lends to its vogue. Visitors of the Square are likely to see polite intermingling between young professionals, landed gentry, “scenesters,” and “starving artists.”

    Common landmarks are its large statue of three lions and the Art Deco styled San Marco Theater.


    Sunbeam is a relatively new neighborhood centered around Sunbeam Road which runs east/west between Philips Highway and San Jose Boulevard. It is situated south of Baymeadows Road, east of Mandarin and north of the Avenues Mall. The area includes the site of the former Sunbeam Sanitary Landfill which opened in 1972. The dump emitted objectionable odors, which discouraged development nearby. The landfill permit expired in 1986, and the facility stopped accepting garbage. After being covered with a 3-foot (0.91 m) deep cap, which prevents the elements from coming in and waste from coming out, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER) certified it closed on October 21, 1992. [3] With the odor problem resolved, development resumed in the middle 1990’s including subdivisions, apartment complexes, commercial buildings and the Community Hospice of Northeast Florida center. A golf course on and around the original landfill was planned and delayed for several years but construction finally began in late 2007 and projected to open in Fall, 2008. However, the financial meltdown delayed opening. At the end of 2009, the course was substantially complete but work on a clubhouse had not commenced.

    Southwest Jacksonville

    .[4]..[5]. Neighborhoods include Argyle, Avondale, Cedar Hills, Cedar Hills Estates, Chimney Lakes, Confederate Point, Duclay, Duclay Forest, Fairfax, Herlong, Hillcrest, Hyde Park, Jax Farms, Jacksonville Heights, Lakeshore, Maxville, McGirts Creek, Murray Hill, Normandy Manor, Normandy Village, Oak Hill, Ortega, Ortega Farms, Ortega Forest, Ortega Hills, Otis, Riverside, Rolling Hills, Settlers Landing, Sweetwater, Venetia, Wesconnett, Whitehouse, Yukon and West Jacksonville.

    The Westside is home to Paxon School for Advanced Studies, which happens to be one of the top schools in the nation by academics since 2003. The Westside is also home to some of the most culturally diverse schools in Duval County to date.


    One of the newest and largest neighborhoods on Jacksonville’s Westside, and occupying a large area of former ranchland, Argyle has grown rapidly from its beginnings in the mid-1980s. Straddling the Duval/Clay county line, Argyle was originally accessible only from Blanding Boulevard in Orange Park. However, as it has expanded westward, Argyle is now connected to Jacksonville’s far-Westside by a number of roads, including the Brannan Field-Chaffee Road corridor that links I-10 directly with Middleburg. Argyle remains a popular choice for middle-class families that are recently settling in Jacksonville.


    Historic Avondale lies along the St. John’s River southwest of the Riverside area, some three to four miles (6 km) upriver from downtown Jacksonville. Avondale is known for its quiet, tree-lined residential streets and hundreds of quaint homes, most dating from the early 1920s during the Great Florida Land Boom. A few Avondale homes pre-date 1900. Most homes in the neighborhood reflect the middle to upper income taste in residential architecture of the 1920s, including numerous Prairie School, Art Deco, Craftsman Style, Classical Revival, and Mediterranean Revival styles. Avondale is characterized by numerous bungalows and spacious, graceful homes. Unlike some other neighborhoods, Avondale never experienced a period of decline during the latter 20th Century, and retains much of its original gentility.

    Two-lane St. John’s Avenue is the key traffic artery through Avondale, and is the location of the Avondale Shops, a small but vibrant collection of specialty shops, clothing stores, cafes, and upscale restaurants, most of which are located in original 1920s structures.

    The Avondale Historic District is a U.S. historic district in Jacksonville, Florida. It is bounded by Roosevelt Boulevard, Belvedere Avenue, Seminole Road, the St. Johns River, and Talbot Avenue, encompasses approximately 2730 acres, and contains 729 historic buildings. On July 6, 1989, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.

    Cedar Hills

    Cedar Hills lies along the Cedar River (called Cedar Creek by the locals), on the opposite shore from Lake Shore, and stretches from Blanding Boulevard on the east to Lane Avenue to the west. Built in the 1940s, Cedar Hills consists of some 3,000 single-family brick or concrete block homes in seven different residential neighborhoods that are anchored by the Cedar Hills Shopping Center business district. Most of the homes are modest, although many of the homes along the shore of the Cedar River have been greatly expanded, or replaced with much larger homes.

    Confederate Point

    Built in the 1960s on reclaimed lowlands, technically a small island surrounded by a moat, with one small bridge as access. Confederate Point lies along the Cedar River (called Cedar Creek by the locals), on the opposite shore from Lake Shore. Confederate Point stretches from the Ortega River to the east, to Blanding Boulevard on the West, and is bordered by the Cedar River to the North, and Timaquana Boulevard to the South. The area consists of approximately 300 large, single family homes, and approximately 700 condos and apartments that line the south bank of the Cedar River. All of the single family homes are inland, with the apartments and condos lining the shore of the Cedar River. The area is popular given that it is close to water, and Downtown, yet also exclusive in that there is only one road in or out.

    Lake Shore

    Built during the time of the first World War, Lake Shore lies on the curving north bank of the Cedar River (called Cedar Creek by the locals), and stretches from Roosevelt Boulevard on the east, to the Cedar River to the West, and is bordered by the Cedar River to the South, and Park Street to the North, and is bisected by Cassat Avenue. Lake Shore consists of approximately 1,000 modest, wood-frame, concrete block or brick homes, with the exception of approximately 80 quite large estates that line the shore of the Cedar River. The neighborhood is anchored by the Roosevelt Plaza on Roosevelt Boulevard, and the Lake Shore business district of stores up and down Cassat Avenue. Lake Shore is centrally located on the Westside, with quick access to Downtown Jacksonville via Roosevelt Boulevard. Given the small size of the existing homes, the current trend is for first time home buyers to renovate and retrofit these well built homes to fit today’s needs. This is a very well maintained pocket of 1940s and 1950s homes. There is a definite trend to renovate and revitalize this quiet, comfortable neighborhood.


    Marietta is one of the small farming communities that was absorbed during the 1968 consolidation of Jacksonville with Duval County. Though technically a part of the city proper today, much of Marietta still retains its small-town, and even rural “feel”, with some old-style farms and ranches, and most homes occupying lots of 10 acres (40,000 m2) or more, on which they keep horses and cattle, or raise grain and maintain orchards. Marietta is popular with old Southern families, and new families who moved to Jacksonville from mid-western agricultural states. Companies looking for more space have also found Marietta. The area west of Marietta and east of Whitehouse along Beaver Street is now home to the Publix warehouse, Michael’s warehouse and the Winn-Dixie distribution center.


    Outside of what would eventually become Jacksonville, and originally called “Hogan Settlement”, The Normandy area was settled by Jacksonville’s “Founding Family”, the “Hogan’s” who were the first white settlers in Duval County. The Normandy area is a large swath of forested high-ground that straddles both sides of Normandy Boulevard, and stretches from Cassat Avenue on the East, out to Herlong Airfield on the West, and is bordered by I-10 to the North, and Wilson Road to the South. Though originally populated by the large ranches of many of Duval County’s founding families such as the Hogans, Lindseys, Fourakers, and the Herlongs, the area is now a bedroom community, containing over a dozen large residential neighborhoods such as Normandy, Normandy Village, Rolling Hills, Country Creek, Crystal Springs, Hyde Grove, Hyde Park, etc, with very few apartment complexes or condo developments. These neighborhoods have their own sewer and water plants, and unlike most wood-constructed homes in Jacksonville’s newer neighborhoods, most homes in the Normandy area are constructed of brick, or concrete block. The area is home to some of the city’s best schools, and parks. Unlike other sections of the city, where people tend to move from home to home every 2 or 3 years; homes in the Normandy area are routinely transferred from generation to generation, and it is not unusual for great-grandchildren to live in homes originally built by their great-grandparents.[6].


    Historic Ortega lies on the St Johns River just south of the historic Riverside area. Ortega is bordered by the St. Johns River on the East, the Cedar River on the North, and the Ortega river on the West, practically making it an “inland island.” The history of the area includes a number of interesting characters: botanist William Bartram; highwayman and cattle rustler Daniel McGirtt; and Don Juan McQueen, who attempted to establish a plantation on his 1791 Ortega land grant, but was forced to leave due to attacks of Georgians and the French. Gangster George “Machine Gun” Kelly and his wife were rumored to be the mysterious couple who abruptly left their rented Grand Avenue home hours before a midnight police raid in 1933. Ortega is home to hundreds of mid-size to large, turn-of-the-century homes and Southern Style mansions. Many of these homes are situated directly on the river, and the nature of the “island” allows ease of access to the waterways for all residents. Along with Avondale and Riverside, Ortega is home to some of the wealthiest of Jacksonville families. It is marked by a distinctly traditional Southern culture complete with one of the South’s most exclusive debutante coiteries. The island is almost exclusively residential, the only exception being a small square in the section known as “Old Ortega” on the northern end where a small collection of restaurants, boutiques, and a pharmacy are found. Ortega, with its giant oaks, waterfront mansions, and series of parks is widely considered one of the most beautiful residential areas of Northeast Florida.


    Platted in the 1920s and 30’s, the Paxon area is one of the oldest, pre-platted neighborhoods in Jacksonville. Built due to the redistribution of housing after the Great Fire, the Paxon area replaced the many thousands of homes that were destroyed in the Great Fire with thousands of modest, wood-framed homes. The Paxon area was extensively well-planned with its own schools (originally known as Paxon Sr. High School and Paxon Jr. High School, along with a half-dozen small elementary schools). The area straddles Edgewood Avenue South, and stretches from Mcduff Avenue to the East, and I-295 to the West, and is bordered by I-10 to the South, and I-295 to the North. The area originally contained over 40,000 single family homes in over 15 different residential neighborhoods, all anchored by the Edgewood Avenue, and Beaver Street business districts. However, over time, the area declined due to the small average size of the homes, and many of those homes were destroyed, and replaced with warehouses and mixed industry. Despite the new industrialization of the area overall, there are still many thousands of occupied homes in the Paxon area. Paxon Senior High School has been converted into a magnet school—it is now known as Paxon School for Advanced Studies—which has been listed by Forbes Magazine as one of the top three high schools in the United States for the last four years.[citation needed]



    The community of Whitehouse was originally founded due to its close proximity to NAS Cecil Field, with most residents being active Navy personnel or civilian employees at the facility. When the federal government closed Cecil Field in 1999, the leaving military workers were replaced by civilian workers at the Cecil Commerce Center. The area east of Whitehouse along Beaver Street is now home to the Publix warehouse, Michael’s warehouse and the Winn-Dixie distribution center, which provide additional employment nearby.

    Northwest Jacksonville

    A less developed section of Jacksonville, it is primarily commercial/industrial around Interstate 295 and rural residential in most areas. Neighborhoods include: Allendale, Biltmore, Bulls Bay, Carver Manor, Cisco Gardens, College Gardens, Commonwealth, Edgewood, Edgewood Manor, Grand Park, Harborview, Lackawanna, Lake Forrest, Lake Forrest Hills, Lincoln Hills, Magnolia Gardens, Mixon Town, New Town, Osceola Forrest, Panama Park, Picketville, Ribault, Riverview, Robinsons Addition, Royal Terrace, Sherwood Forrest, Tallulah/North Shore, Woodstock, 45th & Chase.

    Panama Park

    Panama Park was home to two of Jacksonville’s previous mayors, and the founder’s of Duval Spirits, the late J. Baker Bryan and his brother Lon B. Bryan. Oceanway is the home of F. Andy Bryan, Grandson of the late J. Baker Bryan, his great grandson J. Baker Bryan IV, lives in the Orlando area.

    North Shore

    The North Jacksonville neighborhood of North Shore had Main Street as its eastern border from about 35th Street up to Trout River. Panama Park was the adjoining neighborhood to the east, Norwood to the west and Brentwood to the south. The western border was between Norwood Avenue and Pearl Street, with Elwood Avenue as the western border. North Shore from the 1930s through the 1990s was largely a lower middle income neighborhood that included churches, a school (North Shore Elementary), and some small businesses clustered near Pearl and 54th Streets and at Pearl Street and Tallalah Avenue. The churches included: North Jacksonville Baptist Church, North Shore Methodist Church, North Shore Christian Church and an Episcopal Chapel. Two parks provided playgrounds for its children, including Tallulah Park and another park at the foot of Pearl Street on Trout River. For many years, the latter offered a boat ramp and areas for outdoor cooking and Easter Egg hunts. After graduating from North Shore Elementary School, its young people went on to Kirby-Smith Junior High School (grades 8-9) and Andrew Jackson Senior High School (grades 10-12). The City of Jacksonville built Fire Station Number 15 on the corner of Pearl and 54th Streets in the late 1940s, and it was a frequent hangout for the young people who were hoping that a fire call would provide some excitement as the firemen dashed for their gear and headed out on the ancient old pumper with chain-driven wooden wheels. Boy Scout Troop 222, based at the North Shore Christian Church provided life-changing core values and produced over 50 Eagle Scouts during its many years of service to the community.

    Urban core

    The central section of Jacksonville has the following neighborhoods: Brentwood, Brooklyn, Downtown, East Jacksonville, Fairfield, Hogans Creek, LaVilla, Longbranch, Midtown, Mid-Westside, Moncrief, Phoenix, Springfield, Southside, Tallyrand and 29th & Chase.


    LaVilla has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see LaVilla.


    In 1907, the town of South Jacksonville (now the Southside neighborhood) incorporated with a population of some 600. In 1913, 96 South Jacksonville voters approved the issuance of $65,000 in bonds for civic improvements, including a city hall. The building, at 1468 Hendricks Avenue, was completed in 1915 and is one of the few remaining signs that South Jacksonville existed, if only for 25 years. In 1932, the city of Jacksonville annexed the area, and it ceased to exist as a separate government entity.[7]


    Established in 1869, Springfield has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see Springfield.



    Nocatee, Florida (pronounced \ˈnäk-ˈā-ˈtē\) is an unincorporated master-planned community in St. Johns County and the extreme southeast corner of Duval County (the city of Jacksonville), Florida, United States.

    Nocatee is an approved Development of Regional Impact (DRI) under Section 380.06 of the Florida Statutes[1]. The mixed used development is situated on approximately 13,323 acres (53.92 km2), which 11,332 acres (45.86 km2) are located in northeastern St. Johns County and approximately 1,991 acres (8.06 km2) are located in southeastern Jacksonville, Florida.

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